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Pathways Acute Myocardial Infarction
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Description: Description: Myocardial infraction (MI)is the condition of irreversible necrosis of the heart muscle that results from prolonged ischemia. Nearly 1.5 million people in US sustain an MI each year, and this event proves fatal in approximately one third of patients. Approximately 90% of MI result from formation of an acute thrombus that obstructs an atherosclerotic coronary artery. The thrombus transforms a region of plaque narrowing to one of complete vessel occlusion (top right in pink). The responsible thrombus appears to be generated by interactions between the atherosclerotic plaque, the coronary endothelium, circulating platelets, and dynamic vasomotor tone of the vessel wall, all of which overwhelm natural protective mechanisms. The endogenous protective mechanisms against thrombosis include: 1. Inactivation of thrombin by antithrombin III (ATIII), the effectiveness of which is enhanced by binding of ATIII to heparin sulafate. The antithrombin binding region of commercial heparin consists of sulfated disaccharide units (bottom panel). 2. Inactivation of clotting factors Va and VIIIa by activated protein C (protein C*), an action that is enhanced by protein S. Protein C is activated by the thrombomodulin (TM)-thrombin complex. 3. Inactivation of factor VII/tissue factor complex by tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI). Coumarin drugs (Warfarin) blocks the g-carboxylation of Glu residues in prothrombin and factors VII, IX and X which results in incomplete molecules that are biologically inactive in coagulation (left panel). 4. Lysis of fibrin clots by tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). 5. Inhibition of platelet activation by prostacyclin and EDRF-NO. Platelets adhere to exposed collagen and are activated at the site of endothelial damage in the blood vessel. Activated platelets release adenosine diphosphate (ADP), serotonin (5-HT), and thromboxane A2 (TXA2), which activate additional platelets. Binding of thrombin further activates the platelets. Three adjoining platelets are shown in the process of viscous metamorphosis (top right). Increased cellular Ca2+ facilitates binding of fibrinogen. If the intraluminal thrombus at the site of plaque disruption totally occludes the vessel, blood flow beyond the obstruction will cease, prolonged ischemia will occur and MI (usually Q-wave MI) will likely result (see electrocardiogram on the top left).
Description: Description: Kosi Gramatikoff, PhD
Description: Description:
references: references: Acute Miocardial Infraction (Ch 7 in Pathophysiology of Heart Disease 2nd edition by Leonard S. Lilly) pp. 145-169

Blood Coagulation in Cardiovascular Disease (Ch 23 in Molecular Basis of cardiovascular Disease. A Companion to Braunwalds Heart Disease ed. by Kenneth R Chien) pp.505-535

Drugs Used in Disorders of Coagulation (Ch 33 in Basic and Clinical Pharmacology 6th edition by Bertram G Katzung) pp. 507-521



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